中国人姓氏的秘密-HanTok学中文

中国人姓氏的秘密-HanTok学中文

中国人姓氏的秘密

The Secret of Chinese Surnames

 

对中国有一定了解或者有交中国朋友的人应该都知道,中国人的姓有很多种,并且还有一些是复姓,今天我们就一起来了解中国人的姓氏文化。

Anyone who has a understanding of China or has made Chinese friends should know that there are many kinds of Chinese surnames, and some of them are compound surnames. Today we will learn about Chinese surname culture together.

 

提起中国的姓氏,必定绕不开《百家姓》,《百家姓》朗朗上口,是非常好的儿童中文启蒙读物。在中国,小朋友们不仅要背诵,还要说出一些重要姓氏的来历和相应的历史名人。关于百家姓的由来,有很多不同的说法,其中被广泛承认的一种说法是《百家姓》成书于北宋初,原本收集姓氏是411个,后增补到568个。其姓氏由来主要有祖先的图腾,祖先名字,封地名和国名,职业或官位,部落的名称,因避祸、避仇、避讳、避嫌所改的姓氏,帝王赐姓氏等。

When you mention Chinese surnames, you must not avoid “Bǎi jiā xìng”. And it is a very good Chinese enlightenment book for children.In China, children not only have to recite, but also tell the origins of some important surnames and corresponding historical celebrities.There are many different theories about the origin of this book, one of which is widely accepted is that was written in the early Northern Song Dynasty. The original collection of surnames was 411, and later added to 568.The origin of the surname mainly includes the totem of the ancestors, the name of the ancestors, the name of the fief and country, the occupation or official position, the name of the tribe, the surname changed to avoid disaster, hatred, taboo, and suspicion, and the surname bestowed by the emperor.

 

百家姓中有两大贵姓,即张姓和孔姓,二者在自我介绍时不用说“免贵”。《通志氏族略》中说:“贵者有氏,贱者有名无氏。”古代封建社会,独尊儒学,孔子作为儒学的创始者,不仅孔子本人地位尊享,他的后人也受到很高的礼遇。“张”姓和中国的神话体系有关,相传玉皇大帝姓张,他的俗名有多种说法,比如张百忍、张友仁等。

Among the hundred surnames, there are two noble surnames, namely Zhang and Kong, and they need not say "Miǎn guì" when introducing themselves.《通志氏族略》 said: "The noble has a clan, and the humble has a name but no clan." In ancient feudal society, Confucianism is the only respected, and Confucius, as the founder of Confucianism, not only Confucius himself was distinguished, but also his descendants received high courtesy. The "Zhang" surname is related to the Chinese mythology system. According to legend, the Jade Emperor was surnamed Zhang. There are many versions of his common name, such as Zhang Bairen and Zhang Youren.

 

百家姓中还有一些特别的姓氏,如:虎姓,并不读“hǔ”,而读“māo”;牟姓,在姓名中并不读“móu”,而读作“mù”;万俟姓,不读“wàn sì”,读作“mò qí”。这些常见字在姓氏中都有其标准的读法,如果我们认识这些姓氏的朋友,如果叫错了,别怪他们不理你哦,因为他们根本就不知道你是在叫他!

There are also some special surnames in the hundred family surnames, such as: the surname 虎 does not read "hǔ" but "māo"; the surname 牟 does not read "móu" but "mù"; the surname 万俟 is pronounced as "mò qí" instead of "wàn sì".These common characters have their standard pronunciation in surnames. If we know friends with these surnames, if we call them wrong, don’t blame them for ignoring you, because they don’t even know that you are calling them!

 

2022年的调查显示,中国大陆31个省、自治区、直辖市常住人口中在用的姓氏逾6000个。人数排名前四的姓氏分别是王、李、张、刘。现在姓氏主要按照地区、民族、文化等来划分,当然也因为当今社会人口流动性强,很多姓氏也会跨区发展和传承,很多华人移居到海外后也有可能会经过时间的推移发展成新的姓氏。

According to the survey in 2022, there are more than 6,000 surnames in use among the resident population of 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government in mainland China.The top four surnames are Wang, Li, Zhang and Liu. Now surnames are mainly divided according to region, ethnicity, culture, etc. Of course, because of the strong population mobility in today’s society, many surnames will also develop and pass on across regions. Many Chinese surnames may also develop into new ones over time after immigrating overseas.

 

姓氏文化作为中国人身份的符号象征之一,自古以来都是非常重要的,甚至因此演变出了一些家族文化、氏族文化、区域文化,所以基本上每个中国人都很了解自己姓氏的起源与发展,中国的姓氏标志着一个人的家族系统和血缘关系,可以追溯到上古时期,一直延续到当代,对于外国人来说,也是了解中华文化的重要契入口。如果是背井离乡的游子,可以靠姓氏谱系连通与同宗族人的血脉,感受到自己的生命本源和文化之根。那么你了解自己姓氏的内涵和文化吗?

As one of the symbols of Chinese identity, surname culture has been very important since ancient times, and some family cultures, clan cultures, and regional cultures have even evolved because of this, so basically every Chinese knows the origin and develop of their surnames.The Chinese surname marks a person's family system and blood relationship, which can be traced back to ancient times and has continued to the present. For foreigners, it is also an important entry point to understand Chinese culture.If you are a wanderer who has left your hometown, you can rely on the surname genealogy to connect with the blood of the same clan, and feel the origin of your life and the root of culture. So do you understand the connotation and culture of your surname?

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